Glitter, Parade, Music, and Dance: Why is Pride Month a Month of Jubilant Celebration?

亮片、游行、音乐和舞蹈:骄傲月的狂欢意味着什么?

June of 2020 was celebrated as the 50th anniversary of the LGBTQ+ Pride traditions starting from the first official Pride parade in 1970. Past years of Pride celebrations have seen workshops, art festivals, marathons, and parties where people discuss topics related to identity politics, build awareness for LGBTQ+ rights, and provide support for one another. The Pride Parade, often in late June, is the culmination of the month’s celebrations, with people singing, dancing and partying. Although this year, with the pandemic still haunting many parts of the world, people in some cities can’t march together, online Pride events were held featuring speeches, musical performances and more. 

Why are Pride events often associated with such celebratory dancing, singing, and jubilant partying? In this article, the authors provided us with an overview of the history behind the Pride Month. The analysis presents what the jubilant nature of the Pride celebration connotes: a way of showing rebellion, a self-expression of LGBTQ+ identity as being a pride, a de-construction of social norms. In the context of current #BlackLivesMatter movement, this overview of the Pride Month sheds light on the roles Black activists played in the fight for LGBTQ+ rights and how celebrating the Pride Month is related to the liberation of not only LGBTQ+ communities, but all the marginalized and the suppressed as well. 

Note: LGBTQ+ is an acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (or questioning) and other sexual identities including pansexual, asexual and omnisexual, etc. The article was originally written in English.

刚刚过去的6月是全球范围内的“骄傲月”,也是1970年第一次骄傲游行的50周年纪念月。在往年骄傲月的活动中,人们会通过举办座谈会、艺术节、马拉松或者派对等方式,来讨论身份政治,呼吁赋权多元性/别群体(LGBTQ+)的公共意识,并为彼此提供支持和鼓励。往年里,六月下旬的骄傲游行总能把整个月的活动气氛推向高潮。在游行中,人们载歌载舞,一派狂欢的气氛。今年因受到疫情影响,多地的骄傲月游行被取消,但这并不阻碍人们通过直播公开演讲以及举办线上音乐会等活动以示庆祝。

为什么骄傲月活动总是伴随着舞蹈、音乐与狂欢?在这篇unCoVer成员的原创文章中,作者们梳理了“骄傲月”的历史起源与其发展为“骄傲游行”的历史进程。这篇文章解析了“狂欢的party”背后更深刻的意义:这是一种表示不满的方式,一种以LGBTQ+身份为傲的自我表达,以及一种对社会规范的解构。在今年“黑命攸关”运动的情境下回看骄傲月活动,我们能够发现黑人活动家在争取LGBTQ+群体权利的斗争中所作出的努力。骄傲月中“解放”的核心价值不仅仅与性别意识,性取向和性解放有关,更与所有被边缘化、被压迫的身份群体的解放息息相关。

注:本文中的LGBTQ+是女同性恋、男同性恋、双性恋、跨性别和酷儿(或对性/别存疑)以及其ta包括泛性恋、无性恋和全性恋等性/别身份的缩写。原文语言为英语。

Writers | 作者: Jiara Sha, Ryan Hoover, Ariel Tan
Translators | 翻译: Maggie, Xiaoyu, Joyce


About a half century ago, the term “LGBTQ+” was unheard of – queer individuals were forced to remain “in the closet” because non-heteronormative behaviors or identities were unacceptable by the general public, let alone the government. Queerness had long been considered as illegal and shameful. Gay bars were the only few places where queerness could be expressed openly and genuinely under the ambiance of fun and excitement. On June 28th, 1969, a riot took place in the Stonewall Inn that changed the narrative of gay bars and queer expressions forever. As a rebellion against long-term oppression and violence, the Stonewall Riots also ignited the LGBTQ+ movements and the establishment of Pride Month that we know today. 

大约半个世纪前,“多元性/别”还是个让人前所未闻的词。以异性恋规范为主导的社会中,大众无法接受酷儿的行为与身份,遑论政府政策,酷儿们于是也被迫“紧锁柜中”。所谓的“酷儿性”在过去的很长一段时间里被认为既不合法,也不体面,同志酒吧于是成为仅有的几个多元性/别群体能够自由表现其酷儿性的场合,其氛围也通常兴味十足。但1969年6月28日发生在纽约石墙旅馆的暴动给同志酒吧以及酷儿表达带来了翻天覆地的变化。它不仅是多元性/别群体反抗压迫与暴力的一次运动,也点燃了今日我们所知的LGBTQ+权利运动,并促成了骄傲月的诞生。


From the Stonewall Inn to Christopher Street
从石墙旅馆到克里斯托弗街

The Stonewall Inn is a gay bar nestled in the Greenwich Village of New York City. Police raids in gay bars during the 1960s were common since homosexual expression was considered illegal, but places like Stonewall Inn were relatively safe from police interference, since business owners could bribe the New York Police Department (NYPD) [1]. As a result, Stonewall Inn was a popular refuge for gay and gender-non-binary folks, where couples, drag queens, homeless youth, and dancers could have fun without suppressing their identities [2]. 

Beside its significance for social gatherings, what really added a political mark to a bar like this was the Stonewall Riots of 1969. On the dawn of June 28th, NYPD raided the bar all of a sudden, disrupting the party and arresting 13 people, including bar employees for selling alcohol without license and patrons for crossdressing [2]. But instead of remaining silent or running away, gradually the gay communities and patrons stood up and protested against the police. Hundreds of people formed a mob that erupted into disorder, physically and actively fighting against the police assault. Before you know it, the Stonewall Inn riot led to an ongoing protest on Christopher Street for over six days [1]. 

Fed up with years of invisibility, misrepresentation, humiliation, and harassment, the Stonewall Riots quickly became a turning point and symbol in which LGBTQ+ rights surfaced as a public concern instead of a closeted issue. This week-long protest was seen not only as a form of rebellion, but a demand for justice, a change in consciousness, and a claim for personal agency and empowerment.

石墙旅馆是藏身于纽约市格林尼治村的一个同志酒吧。20世纪60年代,同性恋行为在美国仍属非法,警察对同志酒吧的搜查也屡见不鲜。但因当时一些商家老板能够贿赂纽约市警察局,避免警察干涉【1】,石墙旅馆这样的场所才能够保持相对安全的环境。因此,石墙旅馆也成为了同性恋群体以及非二元性别人士倍加喜爱的庇护所。在这里,情侣、变装皇后、无家可归的青年、舞者都能够不受奚落、毫不掩藏自己身份地尽情享受美好时光【2】。

除去石墙旅馆在社交聚会上的重要地位,真正为它打上政治烙印的还是1969年的一系列石墙暴动。6月28日黎明时分,纽约市警察局突击搜查了石墙旅馆,中断了派对,并逮捕了13人,其中包括无证销售酒水的酒吧员工以及变装的顾客。这一次,长期以来因为性取向或性别表达被边缘化的人们不再保持沉默,而是选择站出来反抗警察。上百人聚集起来,场面一度混乱。这一次的石墙暴动引发了接下来六天的克里斯托弗街的游行示威【1】。

受够了多年来的忽视、羞辱和骚扰,石墙暴动很快成为LGBTQ+权利运动的标志和转折点:LGBTQ+权利问题不再是一个遮遮掩掩的秘密,而是一个公开的大众议题。为期一周的石墙暴动不仅是一种反抗,更是对正义的诉求,是大众意识的改变,也是对个人主体性及赋权的呼喊。

1969年7月6日纽约星期日新闻报纸头条报道了石墙暴动,新闻标题中带有恐同意味。
Coverage of the Stonewall Riots on New York Sunday News, July 6, 1969, with headline and content tinged with homophobia.
Source: https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/ae8dn4/why-dancing-was-so-important-at-the-stonewall-inn-new-yorks-newly-landmarked-gay-bar

“It was the only bar where we could slow dance. That was totally revolutionary. Being able to dance with someone of the same sex changed everything in the way you felt about yourself. Because you were having an affectionate moment, you felt totally humanized.” [3]

“那是当时我们唯一能够慢舞的酒吧,【这一酒吧的存在】着实具有革命性。能够与自己同性的人跳舞改变了所有你先前对自身的感觉,因为你享受到了一个充满爱的时刻,你会觉得完全被人性化了【3】。”

artist Thomas Lanigan-Schmidt, who participated in the riots. 参与石墙暴动的艺术家托马斯·兰尼根-施米特

“Say It Loud, Gay Is Proud”
“大声呼告,同志骄傲”

The Stonewall Riots did not end after its protests, but served as a catalyst for the LGBTQ+ rights movement even until today. Within weeks after the initial riot, activist groups were formed to promote rights for gays and lesbians [4]. Organizations like the Gay Liberation Front and the Gay Activists Alliance were quickly formed to continue the momentum of LGBTQ+ rights activism. 

Out of the famous Stonewall Riots came the first Gay Pride parade. Led by Brenda Howard, a bisexual rights activist and New York native, this parade became an affirmation and declaration for reclaiming queerness as an identity with pride. As one of the first highly visible and public events that dismantles heteronormativity, the parade turned the narrative of “shame” to that of “pride”, “private” to “public”, and “anger” to “celebration” [5]. 

By claiming public spaces and personal agency, protests and parades have become a vehicle for political expression and involvement, as politicians and lawmakers are made to address civil rights violations against queer communities. 

The Pride parades have also been an opportunity for community building and genuine expression. Representation matters, because the visibility of queerness leads to connection among those with shared experiences [6]. By chanting “Say it loud, gay is proud”, the feeling of being in the closet was removed and replaced with the feeling of self-affirmation. 

Fast forward to today, the Pride parade has become a month-long celebration embraced by countries around the world and recognized by the U.S. government. In 2016, the Stonewall National Monument was established in memory of this historic initiative of queer liberation. Moreover, two U.S. Presidents, Bill Clinton and Barack Obama, have both officially acknowledged and recognized Pride Month, a jubilant time for celebrating the queerness.

石墙暴动并没有止于几次抗议,它为直至今日的LGBTQ+权利运动注入了一剂强有力的催化剂。最初的暴动发生后的几周内,许多维权组织相继成立【4】。“同志解放阵线”、“同志行动者联盟”等组织成为了推进当时LGBTQ+权利运动的强大动力。

石墙暴动后,历史上第一个骄傲游行也应运而生。此次游行由纽约的双性恋平权运动者布伦达·豪沃德(Brenda Howard)带领,成为了酷儿们宣示身份的骄傲宣言。作为第一个打破异性恋霸权的高曝光度公众活动,骄傲游行化“羞耻”为“骄傲”,化“秘密“为“公开”,化“愤怒”为“庆祝”【5】。

通过索取每个人应享有的公共空间与自主性,抗议与游行成为了政治表达与政治参与的手段,从政者和立法者因此不得不面对酷儿群体的公民权利问题。

骄傲游行也是一个社群建设、促进真挚表达的机会。酷儿身份的在场极为重要,因为这一身份的能见度可以连接具有相同经历的人们【6】。通过呼喊“大声呼告,同志骄傲”这一标语,紧锁柜中的不安感消失了,换来的则是自我肯定。

到今日,骄傲游行演变为持续一个月的狂欢,世界各国为之庆祝,美国政府予以承认。2016年,石墙国家纪念碑在抗议原址建立,以纪念在此发生的这一历史性举动。比尔·克林顿(Bill Clinton)和巴拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)这两位美国前总统也曾公开认可过骄傲月这一庆祝酷儿性的狂欢。

 “I call upon all Americans to observe this month by fighting prejudice and discrimination in their own lives and everywhere it exists.”

“我呼吁所有的美国公民通过反抗日常生活中随处可见的偏见与歧视来庆祝骄傲月。” 

Proclamation 8529 by U.S President Barack Obama, May 28, 2010. 美国前总统奥巴马8529号总统声明,2010年5月28日

Glitter, Parade, Music, and Dance: Partying as Protesting
亮片、游行、音乐和舞蹈:狂欢的意义

While protesting and revolution often strike images of austere violence, the Pride month often conveys a sense of celebration: glitter, parade, music, and dance. Queerness is empowering and unique in the sense that it curates a narrative full of life, arts, and freedom. While organized and institutionalized events like the Pride parade often took the spotlight for LGBTQ+ celebrations, people have been creative in finding accessible, innovative, and ongoing ways to show celebration and solidarity as both a self-preserving empowerment and anti-establishment weaponry.

2017年1月18日,人们在迈克·彭斯(Mike Pence)住所外举行舞会,以抗议他长期以来反对多元性/别群体权利的言行。
People dance-partying outside of the residence of Mike Pence on Jan. 18, 2017 in protest of his record of opposition against LGBTQ+ rights.
Source: https://time.com/4639152/mike-pence-queer-dance-party/

In 2017, about 200 people attended a unique dance party hosted in a neighborhood of the U.S. Vice President Mike Pence’s residence, a political figure with a history of strong anti-LGBTQ+ stance. The physical aspect of the event, such as the dance and music seems not too different from other social engagements. But what’s more liberating and encouraging, was the symbolism and community impact of this small gathering: the event took place shortly after Pence’s inauguration as the new V.P. Masked as a celebration, the level of resilience and resistance this dance represented were both entertaining and vocal. Moreover, as quoted in a news report, neighbors ended up watching the event from afar, even cheering protestors [7]. Similar to when protestors joined each other’s hand to stand against the police at the Stonewall Inn, the dancers on the lawn of the Chevy Chase neighborhood showed their disapproval towards a representative of the government.

Although the Pride month we know of today has been controversial in the commercialization of a civil rights movement [8], the concept of pride has been rudimentary to the development of gay rights and its sequential civil liberations. Within the political and social development of LGBTQ+ civil rights, the Queer Theory was developed as a more academic analysis on gender, sexuality, and society. As an umbrellaing and expansive school of thought, one of the strongest tenants of the Queer Theory is the fight against socially constructed identities[9]. For many, the critical consciousness of recognizing social norms as fabricated truth means the liberation of self-identity. The term “pride” itself has become symbolic to both continuing to advocate for human rights as well as to redefining oneself. In the fight against heteronormativity, queerness’s focus on being non-conforming and deconstructing social norms inspired solidarity across different identities. Perhaps one of the reasons why celebration is often associated with the Pride month, aside from its branding, is the massive application of the “self-liberation” concept as part of the queer theory [10, 11]. 

虽然在提到抗议和革命时人们常会联想到严酷的暴力,但骄傲月往往透露着一种欢庆的氛围:亮片、游行、音乐和舞蹈。酷儿性是独特并带赋权性质的,因其绽放出一种充满生命力、艺术和自由的叙事。虽然像骄傲游行这样制度化的活动经常成为LGBTQ+庆祝活动的焦点,但人们一直在探索其它受众广、有创新性和持续性的庆祝方式,作为一种赋权和反建制的武器。

2017年,约200人参加了在美国副总统迈克·彭斯(Mike Pence)住所附近举办的一次特殊的舞会。彭斯长期以来持反LGBTQ立场,而该活动是在彭斯成为副总统后不久举行的。从表面上看,这场派对并无特殊之处,但它其实具有强烈的象征意义,在欢庆的音乐和舞蹈中传达出响亮的反抗精神。有新闻报道称,有彭斯的邻居远远地观看了这场盛会,甚至为抗议者欢呼【7】。正如当初石墙旅馆的抗议者手拉手反对警察那样,在这场派对上舞蹈的人群也表达了对政府权威的反对。

尽管今天的骄傲月因其商业化的性质而受到争议【8】,但“骄傲”这一概念对于LGBTQ群体的解放依然起到了至关重要的作用。在LGBTQ权利的发展中,“酷儿理论”作为分析社会性别、性取向与社会关系的学术视角,其重要特征即是对社会建构的诘问和挑战【9】。当我们意识到所谓“真理”其实很可能只是社会主流规范下的虚构,自我意识的解放也由此开始。“骄傲”一词不仅仅象征着人权倡导,也象征着对自我的重新定义。在对异性恋霸权的抗争中,酷儿们挣脱社会束缚,挑战不公平的社会规范,也因此促进了不同身份群体之间的融汇团结。骄傲月之所以伴随着狂欢,不仅因为这是其品牌文化的一部分,更是对酷儿理论中“自我解放”理念的实践【10, 11】。


“Gay is Good,” Inspired by “Black is Beautiful”
从“黑人为美”到“同志为善” 

June of 2020 marked the 50th anniversary of the first Pride march in New York City, highlighted by two social events: the COVID-19 pandemic and #BlackLivesMatter. The COVID-19 pandemic will inevitably be a core component of 2020, resulting in a new form of lifestyle called “social distancing”. While virtual programs and streaming events such as “Global Pride”, “Denver Virtual PrideFest”, “Out Now Live”, and “Dublin Digital Pride Festival & Parade” were launched to continue the spirit of the Pride month, many utilized this opportunity to reflect on other impactful ways to uphold the spirit of pride, such as solidarity [12]. 

Following the death of George Floyd in late May of 2020 in the U.S., many people from different backgrounds and locations joined in solidarity for the #BlackLivesMatter movements [13]. The discourse of #BlackLivesMatter focuses on the ongoing racism and police brutality in the U.S. and beyond. As a result of this, the Pride parade this year was dedicated to bringing awareness and supporting the Black community.

However, what many people overlook is the historical connection between Black Activism Movement and LGBTQ+ Activism. The Stonewall Riots, at its core, was the defense towards the ongoing criminalization, harassment, and police brutality towards LGBTQ+ people – a disheartening but paralleling experiences for black communities. As the momemtum of the Civil Rights Movements of 1960s swept several different marginalized groups, the Black Panther Party, the Gay Liberation Front, and feminist organizations also joined in hands to tackle the oppressive system and their shared struggles. These historical connections resulted in inspirations and strategies: for instance, the famous LGBTQ+ rights slogan “Gay is Good” coined by Frank Kameny, was inspired by the cultural movement “Black is Beautiful” [14], both standing as a counternarrative to the sense of shame and marginalization under white supremacy.

2020年6月是纽约首次骄傲游行的50周年纪念月。在这个月中,还有两件备受瞩目的社会事件:新冠肺炎疫情和“黑命攸关”运动。新冠肺炎疫情使得人们不得不大规模践行“社交疏远”,于是人们推出了各类庆祝骄傲月的线上活动,例如“全球骄傲月”、“丹佛线上骄傲节”、“‘Out Now Live’直播”和“都柏林数字骄傲节和游行”。同时,许多人借此机会思考其它发扬骄傲月精神的方式,例如与非裔社群保持团结【12】。

2020年5月下旬乔治·弗洛伊德(George Floyd)的死让来自不同背景和地区的人们团结起来,加入“黑命攸关”运动【13】,以抗争美国国内外持续的种族主义和警察暴行。在此背景下,今年的骄傲游行也致力于提升种族平等意识并支持黑人社群。

其实,黑人权利运动与LGBTQ+权利运动之间本身就存在历史联系。石墙暴动的核心是抵抗长期存在的污名化、骚扰和来自警察的暴力。这一切对黑人社群而言是足以共情的经历。1960年代的民权运动影响了多个被边缘化的群体,其中就包括非裔和同志群体。当时,黑豹党、“同志解放阵线”和一些女权组织联手合作,共同反对压迫性制度。这些历史性合作中涌现出了一些灵感和策略:例如,弗兰克·卡梅尼(Frank Kameny)提出的著名标语“同志为善”(Gay is Good),即受到了文化运动“黑人为美”(Black is Beautiful)的启发【14】。两者都旨在对抗白人至上主义文化带来的污名化和边缘化。

弗兰克·卡梅尼(Frank Kameny)手举“同志为善”标语牌走在1970年纽约市首次克里斯托弗街解放日游行中。
Frank Kameny carrying the sign with the slogan of “Gay is Good”, marching in the first Christopher Street Liberation Day Parade, New York City, 1970.
摄影 | Photo: Kay Tobin / New York Public Library
Source: https://www.nybooks.com/daily/2019/01/10/the-long-war-against-a-gay-cure/

Three black women – Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi – created the #BlackLivesMatter movement. Two of them identify as queer. What people often forget  is the fact that the oppression resulting from being black is even more multi-layered for those who are also women, trans or other non-binary folks. In the Stonewall riots, although transgender activists such as Marsha Johnson and Sylvia Rivera were important figures, their contributions were once rejected by cisgender groups [15,16]. Today, the murder of Black trans women continue to rise [17]. These realities serve to remind us: the intersection of multiple marginalized identities comes with intersectional oppression; in the struggle against injustice, institutionalized hierarchy does not automatically recede, but continue to operate in the supposed “liberating” spaces. Only when we address discrimination and oppression with an intersectional approach can liberation be truly possible.

“黑命攸关”运动由三位黑人妇女发起——爱丽丝·加尔萨(Alicia Garza)、帕特里索·卡洛斯(Patrisse Cullors)和欧帕·托梅蒂(Opal Tometi)。不为大众所知的是,她们中有两位自我认同为酷儿。人们也常常忽视了,同样身为黑人,女性、跨性别人士和其ta非二元性别者遭受着更多重的压迫。当初的石墙暴动中,尽管跨性别活动家玛莎·约翰逊(Marsha Johnson)和西尔维亚·里维拉(Sylvia Rivera)作出重要贡献,但却长时间不被顺性别群体认可【15, 16】。而至今,针对黑人跨性别女性的谋杀仍旧频频发生【17】。这些事实提醒着人们,多个边缘化身份的交织伴随着多重的压迫;在反对不正义的抗争中,体系化的等级制度不会自动消解,而是在所谓“解放性的”空间中继续运作。我们只有用交叉性的视角和策略去攻破各类交织作用的歧视和压迫,解放才有可能。

From the Stonewall Riots to the Pride Parade, to a global movement on LGBTQ+ rights, and to solidarity for #BlackLivesMatter, what we are witnessing for the past few decades are narratives of liberation, challenges of social movements, and lessons of exclusions in civil right spaces. People need to reflect on the ways that institutionalized and internalized  oppression continue to operate within an action for justice and love. In reviewing the history of Pride Month, one cannot forget how much further we have to go to truly be “freed” from systematic injustice. 

从石墙暴动到骄傲游行,从支持LGBTQ权利的全球运动到“黑命攸关”,我们一直在见证有关解放的叙述和行动。同时我们也看到,争取公民权利的运动中仍存在着排斥和压迫,比如对于LGBTQ权利运动中的跨性别黑人女性,以及黑人权利运动中的LGBTQ人士。在回顾骄傲月历史时,我们需要记住,要真正从系统性不公正中“获得自由”,我们还需走很远。


How have you been there for others this year?

Apart from joining the large public celebratory events such as the Pride March, people around the world have found in their personal arena various ways of showing solidarity during the month by wearing Pride t-shirts, changing their instagram profiles using the Pride filter or using the rainbow flag emoji. We’d also like to know more about how you celebrated Pride Month this year, and how you have been there for others, especially the marginalized ones. 

If you’d like to share with us your experiences during the past month, or your take-aways from reading this article, please leave a WeChat message, or email us at 2020.uncover@gmail.com.

除去像骄傲游行这样的大型公众庆祝活动,世界各地的人们在私人领域也寻找到了展示团结的方式:穿“骄傲”T恤、为头像换上彩虹色滤镜、使用彩虹旗表情等等。读者朋友们,你们是如何庆祝刚刚过去的骄傲月的?又为边缘化群体提供了怎样的支持呢?

如果你想要分享你的经历,或者想要分享你读完这篇文章之后的心得与体会,可以在公众号后台给我们留言,或发送邮件至2020.uncover@gmail.com.


References
  1. https://www.britannica.com/event/Stonewall-riots
  2. https://www.history.com/topics/gay-rights/the-stonewall-riots
  3. https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/ae8dn4/why-dancing-was-so-important-at-the-stonewall-inn-new-yorks-newly-landmarked-gay-bar
  4. https://www.unitycoalition.org/RubyCorado.html
  5. https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2019/06/harvard-scholars-reflect-on-the-history-and-legacy-of-the-stonewall-riots/
  6. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/all-things-lgbtq/201711/why-visibility-matters
  7. https://time.com/4639152/mike-pence-queer-dance-party/
  8. https://www.vox.com/2018/6/25/17476850/pride-month-lgbtq-corporate-explained
  9. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Dennis_Sumara/publication/227684475_Interrupting_Heteronormativity_Toward_a_Queer_Curriculum_Theory/links/5d7af15592851c87c37b1b1f/Interrupting-Heteronormativity-Toward-a-Queer-Curriculum-Theory.pdf
  10. https://www.nytimes.com/1998/01/17/books/queer-theory-is-entering-the-literary-mainstream.html
  11. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4039-1356-2_1
  12. https://www.cntraveler.com/story/how-to-virtually-celebrate-pride-around-the-world?verso=true
  13. https://www.vox.com/2020/6/12/21285244/black-lives-matter-global-protests-george-floyd-uk-belgium
  14. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/gay-is-good_b_558484
  15. https://www.washingtonpost.com/history/2019/06/12/transgender-women-heart-stonewall-riots-are-getting-statue-new-york/
  16. https://abcnews.go.com/US/start-black-lives-matter-lgbtq-lives/story?id=71320450
  17. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/black-trans-lives-matter-new-calls-after-two-murders-dominique-fells-riah-milton/

Editing: Lili, Ariel Tan, Joyce
Typesetting: Linlin
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